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Real: Drivers of Effectiveness in Online Advertising
consumers are introduced to a brand, there are a series of sequential
and cognitive steps that must occur to convert prospects into customers.
Not all products and services follow the same timeframe. Here’s why.
From Dynamic Logic
is not always designed to drive a direct purchase behavior. The
ability of a marketer to increase intent to engage in the desired
behavior often depends on the perceived risk to the consumers. Very
expensive products and services require more consideration before
a financial commitment is made, because the consequence of making
a poor choice can be great. Conversely, less thought or consideration
is put forth for an inexpensive – sometimes called “impulse
buy” – product or service as there is less risk associated
with the purchase.
When consumers are introduced to a brand, there are a series of
sequential and cognitive steps that often happen in the process
of converting prospects into customers. To start, consumers must
become familiar with the name of the brand, and if appropriate,
recognize a logo as a symbol of that brand. Next, the brand must
explain its value proposition to the target audience. This part
of the process often relies on advertising messaging to articulate
what the product or service does and how it can be of use.
Once a consumer
is familiar with a brand and what its stands for, they are considered
“aware.” Building awareness is a straightforward process
relying on the communications of factual information – names,
symbols and messages. The next stage is a greater challenge to marketers
for they must persuade the educated prospects that the brand can
be of value to them.
of Advertising Effects
|See definitions at
conclusion of article
Informational vs. Transformational
There are fundamentally
two types of “value” that influence purchase and usage motives (Rossiter
& Percy, 1997). Informational and Transformational.
and services take customers from a negative state and return them
to a state of equilibrium. Examples of products using Informational
values include pain relievers, food (which satiates hunger) and
household products. Marketers selling transformational goods must
persuade consumers that their brand solves specific problems.
take customers from a state of equilibrium to a higher and more
positive state, and they can often be labeled as rewards. Luxury
cars, entertainment, vacations and ice cream are examples of products/services
that are intended to make people feel happier, and are usually not
considered things that consumers need. Marketers in this category
must entice consumers to indulge and reward themselves or their
There are many brands
that can fall into both informational and transformational categories
and consequently have a greater challenge in consumer persuasion.
Some clothing brands, for example, are necessary items in the minds
of some consumers, and at the same time, luxury items to others.
Certain automotive brands also fall into both categories.
The first part of the
persuasion process involves convincing a consumer that the brand
is a good choice. No one is going to consider purchasing a product
or service if they do not have a positive feeling towards it. Brand
Favorability is a measure of how strongly consumers feel about the
brand – positively or negatively.
Once consumers have formulated
an opinion about a brand, the next logical step is whether they
will engage in a desired behavior. In most cases, the behavior that
the marketer is looking to drive is a purchase or financial transaction.
There are many instances, however, in which the advertising is aiming
to drive a non-purchase behavior. Examples include campaigns striving
to increase visitation of a Web site, test-driving of a vehicle,
consultation with a physician or watching a network television show.
The ability of a marketer
to increase intent to engage in the desired behavior often depends
on the perceived risk to the consumers. Very expensive products
and services require more consideration before a financial commitment
is made, because the consequence of making a poor choice can be
great. Conversely, less thought or consideration is put forth for
an inexpensive – sometimes called “impulse buy”
– product or service as there is less risk associated with
Aided Brand Awareness
– Measures the level
of familiarity respondents have with the brand listed
– Measures the extent to which respondents can match the copy
or messages in the advertising creative to the brand.
– Measures the extent to which respondents have a positive
or favorable opinion of the brand.
-- Measures the likelihood that respondents will take purchase action
on the brand in the future.
© 2002 Dynamic Logic